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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. There are 200,000 new cases of breast cancer each year, resulting in 47,000 deaths per year. The lifetime risk of breast cancer is one in eight for a woman who is age 20. For patients under age 60, the chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer is 1 in about 400 in a

Pathophysiology

The etiology of breast cancer remains unknown, but two Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy breast cancer genes have been cloned-the BRCA-1 and the BRCA-2 genes. Only 10% of all of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy the breast cancers can be explained by mutations in these
Estrogen stimulation is an important promoter of breast cancer, and, therefore, patients who have a long history of menstruation are at increased Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy risk. Early menarche and late menopause are risk factors for breast cancer. Late age at Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy birth of first child or nulliparity also increase the risk of breast cancer.
Family history of breast cancer in a first degree relative Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy and history of benign breast disease also increase the risk of breast cancer. The use of estrogen replacement therapy or oral contraceptives slightly increases the risk of breast cancer. Radiation exposure and alcoholic beverage consumption also increase the breast cancer, chemotherapy, mastectomy, cancer, cancer of the breast risk of breast cancer.

Clinical Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy Evaluation of Breast Masses

The history should assess the length of time that the Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy mass has been present, associated pain (especially if cyclical), any change in size, and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy, cansir, canser, brest the color and quantity of any
B. The results of, and time since, the last clinical breast examination and the last mammogram should be

Physical Examination

The patient should be examined while sitting up with arms first at her side and then behind her head, this facilitates examination of the breast contours and allows visualization of nipple inversion or tethering.
Examine for dimpling, asymmetry, lumps, thickened areas, or shape or contour. The nipples should be compressed to identify any discharge and both axillae should be palpated. Masses should be assessed for multiple components, mobility, and cystic or solid qualities. A drawing should be made of any irregularities or masses.
The patient should also be examined in the supine position with her arms up and

Differential Diagnosis of Breast Masses

<30 Years Old. The common causes are fibroadenoma, papillomatosis, abscess (especially if lactating), and fat necrosis.
30-50 Years Old. Common causes include fibrocystic mastopathy, cancer, fatty lobule, or cystosarcoma phylloides, cansir, canser, brest.
Older than 50. Breast cancer is the primary diagnosis, followed by fibrocystic mastopathy, fat necrosis, and cyst.

Triple Test Diagnosis of Breast Masses

Breast nodules should be assessed by physical exam, mammography, and aspiration biopsy. Each test taken individually has a significant false negative rate. However, taken together, the tests have a B. If the clinical exam, mammography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy are benign, open biopsy is usually not
Mammography is usually not clinically appropriate for patients under 35 years of age For this group, the double test of physical examination and cytologic examination is
An ultrasound of the breast may sometimes be obtained to determine if the mass is cystic or solid. If the lesion is cystic, no further management is necessary, or the fluid can be removed and

Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB)

The skin is prepped with alcohol and the lesion is immobilized with the nonoperating hand. A 10 mL syringe, with a 18 to 22 gauge needle, is introduced in to the central portion of the mass at a 90 angle. When the needle enters the mass, suction is applied by retracting the

Cyst Aspiration. If the physical characteristics (or ultrasound) support the diagnosis of a cyst, needle aspiration may be done. Using the same technique as for FNAB, the cyst fluid is

Treatment

TOC