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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus consists of hyperglycemia caused by insulin deficiency, impairment of insulin action, or both. Five percent of the population is affected by diabetes, 10% of whom have type 1 diabetes. Hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis can lead to severe electrolyte disturbances, cerebral insulin edema, and vascular collapse. Chronic hyperglycemia can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Overtreatment of hyperglycemia can cause hypoglycemia, resulting in seizures, loss of consciousness, and even death.

Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is classified into two types: type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is caused by absolute insulin deficiency. Most cases among children and adolescents (95%) result from autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas.

The peak age at diagnosis is 12 years, and 75-80% of individuals develop type 1 diabetes before age 30. Some persons present with ketoacidosis at disease onset (usually children), while others manifest elevated glucose levels for years (more common in adults).

Gender distribution is equal. Caucasians have the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetis is caused by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Most type 2 diabetics do not require insulin injections. Most diabetis patients who have type 2 diabetes are obese. Native Americans, Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, and Pacific Islanders are Diabetes Mellitus insulin at increased risk.

Pathogenesis and Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes develops in individuals who are genetically susceptible, have certain environmental exposures, and have