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Language Disorders in Children

  Identification of Language Delay

Language delay is the most common developmental disorder of childhood:

15% prevalence at 3 years

5% prevalence at school entry

Early intervention in language disorders results in successful outcomes.

Nomenclature

Language: A system of symbols constructed to communicate information.

Speech: The mechanical aspects of language production.

Expressive language: The generation of symbolic output (spoken or written).

Receptive language: The ability to decode and extract meaning from the language of others (listening or reading).

Language Disorders

Grammatical Terminology

Phonology: How sounds (phoneroes) are combined into words.

Syntax: language disorders, language, dyslexia, stuttering How words are put together into phrases and sentences.

Semantics: The meaning of words. phrases, and sentences.

Pragmatics: How words, phrases, sentences and gestures are used to communicate.

IconSequence of Language AcquisitionIcon

0-3 months: Random noises

3-6 months: Babbling

6-9 Months: Expressive babbling

9-12 months: Jargoning

12-18 mos: dyslexia, stuttering One word stage

18-25 months: Two word stage

24-36 months: Telegraphic speech

36-48 months: Grammatical refinement

Language DelaysIcon

Impairment can occur anywhere in the Language Process:

Input: Impaired sensory input (hearing)

Processing: Impaired decoding, word identification, or meaning formation (related to IQ, vocabulary, reasoning, concept formation)

Output: Impaired oral-motor ability, expression

Language DelaysIcon

Endogenous Problems

Hearing impairment dyslexia, stuttering

Mental retardation

Learning disabilities

Neurological deficits

Pure developmental language disorder

Exogenous Problems

Linguistically impoverished environments

Lack of