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Meniere's disease

Meniere's disease is a clinical disorder defined as the idiopathic syndrome of endolymphatic hydrops. The underlying pathophysiologic state in Meniere's disease is endolymphatic hydrops, which can only be demonstrated with certainty after death by histopathologic study of the temporal bones. The presence of endolymphatic hydrops can be inferred by the


Vertigo is the sensation of motion when no motion is occurring relative to earth's gravity. Conversely, motion intolerance is a feeling of dysequilibrium, spatial disorientation, or malaise during active or


It is a common clinical observation that patients with aural fullness or tinnitus may perceive that they have a loss of hearing when pure-tone sensitivity and word recognition (speech discrimination) are Meniere's disease, Meniere, Miniere, Meneire, Minier, Meneire Consequently,

Although hearing usually fluctuates early in Meniere's disease, fluctuation is not universally present and is not


Ttinnitus and aural fullness are difficult to quantify independent of results for hearing and for control of vertigo.


It is important to state what Meniere's disease is not. Episodic vertigo without hearing loss, tinnitus

Otosyphilis is a disorder that includes episodic vertigo of the Meniere type, hearing loss, and

Treatment of Meniere's Disease

Medical Therapy

Medical therapy is aimed at (1) reducing the inner ear fluid overpressure (endolymphatic hydrops) and (2) controlling vertigo.

Treatment of Endolymphatic Hydrops

A sodium-restricted diet forms the basis of dietary management of Meniere's disease. Salt intake is restricted to

Body fluid management is augmented by diuretic therapy. Thiazides in combination with potassium-sparing agents are popular (Dyazide, Maxzide). Electrolytes require

Dietary compliance and diuretic therapy alone are often adequate for control of

Symptomatic Vestibular Suppression

Vestibular suppressants are used in conjunction with dietary and diuretic therapy when the

Diazepam (Valium) is the single most effective outpatient vestibular suppressant. It is thought to diminish resting activity of

The excitatory neurotransmitter of the vestibular system is thought to be acetylcholine. Anticholinergics diminish neuron excitability in the vestibular nuclei and, in combination with diazepam, are useful in therapy for Meniere's disease. Glycopyrrolate (Robinul), 2 mg orally twice daily, can be

Similar agents suffice (e.g., propantheline [Pro-Banthine], atropine). Dry mouth, blurred vision, and

The antihistamines, including meclizine (Antivert), are not useful in Meniere's disease. Antidopaminergic

managing the acute episode (droperidol [Inapsine]).

Streptomycin Therapy

Streptomycin is an ototoxin that selectively destroys first the balance and then, in higher dosages, the

Intratympanic Injections

The intratympanic injection of steroids* or aminoglycosides,* which are thought to access the labyrinth via

Surgical Therapy

Surgery for Meniere's disease is reserved for those who have medically refractory disease and are


Removing the balance contents of the inner ear is a destructive procedure in which hearing is

Endolymphatic System Surgery

A conservation procedure in which hearing is preserved, endolymphatic system surgery (ELSS) is

Vestibular Nerve Section

Selective vestibular nerve section (VNS), while preserving hearing, is the only surgical modality that, in,,