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Adolescent Substance Abuse

Cigarette Use among Adolescents

In 1995, 34% of seniors, 28% of tenth grader's, and 19% of a eighth grader's smoked regularly.

This represents the highest rate of use since 1979.

Rates are increasing for all racial and 

Marijuana Use Among Adolescents

Since 1990, annual use by 6-8th graders has risen 200% (to 13.6%), and by 110% in high school seniors (to 35%)

Young blacks are most often affected by the surge in marijuana use, females are affected more than

17% of seniors use marijuana weekly and 7% use marijuana daily

Users Also Involved with Other Drugs

69% of marijuana users also drank alcohol (vs. 7.4% of non-users)

13% of marijuana users also used cocaine monthly (vs. 0.1% of non-users)

19% of marijuana users used hallucinogens monthly (vs. 0.2% of non-users)

Drug Use Among 8th Graders marijona

21% used an illicit drug in last year

16% used marijuana in last year

22% used inhalants in lifetime

34% used alcohol in past month

26% have binge drunk in last two weeks

16% used cigarettes in last month

Predisposing Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Use

Family history of drug use


Low self-esteem

Poor social skills

School problem

Problems in Major Life Areas Associated with Drug Use

Poor relationships with parents

Lack of bonding to social groups

Lack of conformity to social rules

School, job, ir legal difficulties

Health problems

Protective Factors Against Drug Use

Clear parent-defined conduct norms

Parenting style that includes praise, encouragement, trust, advice, guidance

Parental monitoring

Siblings and peers are non-users

Social bonding

Positive temperament

External support system reinforces coping and strengths

Repertoire of problem solving skills

Belief in self-efficacy

Resilient youth

Progression of Adolescent Drug Use

1. No use of alcohol/tobacco/drugs

2. Initial use of beer or wine

3. Use of cigarettes or liquor

4. Use of marijuana

5. Other illicit drugs - cocaine, LSD

Stages of Adolescent Drug Use

Stage 1: Learning the Mood Swing

Mood: Normal - euphoria - normal

Feelings: Feel good, few consequences

Drugs: Alcohol, tobacco

Behavior: Little detectable change

Frequency: Weekend and party use

Stages of Adolescent Drug Use

Stage 2: