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Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Since body stores of vitamin B12 are adequate for up to five years, deficiency is generally the result of failure to absorb it. Pernicious anemia, Crohn's disease and other intestinal disorders are the most frequent causes of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Symptoms are attributable primarily to anemia, although glossitis, jaundice, and splenomegaly may be present. Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause decreased vibratory and positional sense, ataxia, paresthesias, confusion.

Treatment of vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia. Intramuscular, oral or intranasal preparations are available for B 12 replacement. In patients with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, daily IM injections of 1,000 mcg of cyanocobalamin.

Folate deficiency anemia

Folate deficiency is characterized by megaloblastic anemia and low serum folate levels. Most patients with folate deficiency have inadequate intake. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and indirect bilirubin typically are elevated, reflecting ineffective erythropoiesis and premature destruction of RBCs.

RBC folic acid and serum vitamin B12 levels should be measured. RBC folate is a more accurate indicator of body folate stores than is serum folate, particularly if measured after folate therapy has been anemia, vitamin B12, anemea, megaloblastic.