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Developmental Learning Disorders

A learning disorder is identified in 6-7% of all school-aged children, and twice as many boys as girls are diagnosed. The disorders may be identified as early as the preschool years. Learning disorders are not outgrown developmental learning disorder, learning disabled, speech disorder, language disorder, dyslexia, dislexia.

Clinical Definitions

Learning disability is defined as difficulty in the acquisition and use of basic reading skills, reading comprehension, oral expression, listening comprehension, mathematical reasoning, and mathematical comprehension. This 

Learning disorders include all disorders that cause a persistent deficit in function of the brain, including mental retardation, acquired disorders (eg, traumatic brain injury), and difficulties with fine motor coordination (dysgraphia, dyspraxia), modulation of sensory modalities (ie, tactile defensiveness, hyperacusis), social cognition (autism), and executive functioning. Attention deficit disorder is also included.

Disorders of Speech and Language


Dyslexia is a disorder of phonologic processing and decoding of words. It is the most common developmental language disorder. Dyslexia frequently is familial, occurring more often in sons

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

ADHD is a heritable disorder characterized by an inability to sustain attention, impulsivity, distractibility, and overactivity. Symptoms must be manifested in multiple settings (eg, in

Adulthood is often characterized by an inability to maintain employment, by substance abuse, and by 

Acquired Memory Disorders

These children have difficulty restarting tasks after interruptions. They may be labile, impulsive, and 

This group of disorders is caused by trauma, recurrent seizures, central nervous system infection, stroke, tumor, or exposure to


This disorder is characterized by limitations in social cognition (lack of reciprocity, sensitivity

Nonverbal Learning Disorder

These children develop language composed of rote expressions and fragments of ritualized dialogue. Major deficits lie in the areas of tactile and visual perception, concept formation, and

Treatment of Learning Disorders. A remedial program should be developed in consultation with speech and language therapists, neuropsychologists, education specialists, and